DC Transients

Capacitor vs Inductor Capacitor Fig 4.2.2 Capacitor Voltage Fig 4.2.3 Capacitor Current   Inductor Fig. 4.4.2 Current Through an Inductor Fig. 4.4.3 Voltage Across an Inductor

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Signal Differentiation and Integration

Good explanation about Differentiation "The output wave of a DIFFERENTIATOR CIRCUIT is ideally a graph of the rate of change of the voltage at its input." Fig.8.4.1 The Differentiator Circuit Fig 8.4.2 Differentiation. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- And Integration "The shape of the input wave of an integrator circuit in this case will be a graph of the rate of change of the output wave " "The low pass filter circuit is therefore called an integrator only when: a. The input wave is a square wave. b. The periodic time(T) of the input wave is much shorter than the circuit time constant(CR) i.e.(T<=CR)." Fig. 8.5.1 The Integrator (also low-pass filter) Circuit. Fig. 8.5.2 Integrator Action

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Duty cycle vs frequency

Good explanation is here. See the image: Frequency = 1 / Tcycle and Hertz is the unit of frequency. It gives the number of cycles in one second. Duty cycle = Thigh / Tcycle. It gives fraction of one cycle for which the signal is high.

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