Signal Differentiation and Integration

Good explanation about Differentiation

“The output wave of a DIFFERENTIATOR CIRCUIT is ideally a graph of the rate of change of the voltage at its input.”

High Pass Filter or Differentiator

Fig.8.4.1 The Differentiator Circuit

Fig-8-4-2.gif Differentiation

Fig 8.4.2 Differentiation.

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And Integration

“The shape of the input wave of an integrator circuit in this case will be a graph of the rate of change of the output wave ”

“The low pass filter circuit is therefore called an integrator only when:

a. The input wave is a square wave.

b. The periodic time(T) of the input wave is much shorter than the circuit time constant(CR) i.e.(T<=CR).”

Low Pass Filter or Integrator

Fig. 8.5.1 The Integrator (also low-pass filter) Circuit.

integration.gif Integration

Fig. 8.5.2 Integrator Action