## DC Transients

Capacitor vs Inductor

Capacitor ### Fig 4.2.2 Capacitor Voltage ### Fig 4.2.3 Capacitor Current

Inductor ### Fig. 4.4.2 Current Through an Inductor ## Signal Differentiation and Integration

“The output wave of a DIFFERENTIATOR CIRCUIT is ideally a graph of the rate of change of the voltage at its input.” ### Fig.8.4.1 The Differentiator Circuit ### Fig 8.4.2 Differentiation.

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And Integration

“The shape of the input wave of an integrator circuit in this case will be a graph of the rate of change of the output wave ”

“The low pass filter circuit is therefore called an integrator only when:

a. The input wave is a square wave.

b. The periodic time(T) of the input wave is much shorter than the circuit time constant(CR) i.e.(T<=CR).” ### Fig. 8.5.1 The Integrator (also low-pass filter) Circuit. ## Duty cycle vs frequency

Good explanation is here.

See the image: Frequency = 1 / Tcycle and Hertz is the unit of frequency. It gives the number of cycles in one second.

Duty cycle = Thigh / Tcycle. It gives fraction of one cycle for which the signal is high.